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مینى كونفرانسێ نه‌خوشیێن په‌له‌وه‌را - Mini-conference on poultry disease in Duhok province 2017 ; Duhok Veterinary Directorate Profile 2016 ; Meeting with the Italian army - کومبون دگەل لەشکەری ئیتالی ; مینى كونفرانسێ نه‌خوشیێن په‌له‌وه‌را - Mini-conference on poultry disease in Duhok province 2016 ; روژا جیهانى یا هاریێ ل كوردستانێ - World Rabies Day in Kurdistan 2016
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Animal Health » Poultry
 
Ducks as sentinels for avian influenza in wild birds
Friday, 10.23.2009, 06:57pm (GMT+3)

To determine the effectiveness of ducks as sentinels for avian influenza virus (AIV) infection, we placed mallards in contact with wild birds at resting sites in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Infections of sentinel birds with different AIV subtypes confirmed the value of such surveillance for AIV monitoring. As a consequence of infections of wild birds and poultry with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1, surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza viruses (AIVs) has intensified in Europe since 2005. Reporting of results is compulsory in the European Union. HPAIV surveillance includes investigation of dead or sick wild birds with the aim of early detection of HPAIV (H5N1) complemented by sampling of healthy wild birds to monitor for low pathogenicity (LP) AIV strains. Previously, sentinel birds were used successfully to obtain information about AIV subtypes circulating in wild birds, but results of those studies are now outdated. Also, the effectiveness of sentinel birds has not yet been documented for AIV strains that emerged during the past decade.

We evaluated a sentinel approach to monitor the prevalence of HPAIV and LPAIV within an ecosystem, obtain information about seroconversion and duration of immunity after infection with AIV, and serve as an early warning system for the introduction of HPAIV (H5N1) and other notifiable AIVs (subtypes H5 and H7) to wild bird populations. Here we summarize results from a 2-year period of 3 international sentinel projects ongoing since 2006. In practice, AIV surveillance of live wild birds is difficult and involves substantial labor and costs, particularly for purchase and maintenance of trapping equipment, salary of trapping staff, and laboratory analysis. Trapping of wild birds also can be biased by season and by bird species that are easier to catch. Low proportions of AIV-positive results (<3%) indicate the low cost:benefit ratio of surveillance based on trapping wild birds. In contrast, our findings demonstrate that the use of sentinel birds in regions with substantial wild bird populations achieves a high rate of AIV detection and, therefore, is an efficient supplement to active AIV monitoring. The detection of different AIVs among the sentinel ducks reflects the natural ecology of AIV at discrete locations. Recently, all duck species, especially dabbling ducks, have been assessed as high-risk species for possibly contributing to the transmission of HPAIV (H5N1). Therefore, mallards as sentinel species ensure a high probability of detecting AIV if kept in direct contact with wild water birds. In addition, sites for sentinel stations need to be selected carefully to achieve spatial representation.

Although our study was conducted in areas where HPAIV (H5N1) had circulated in wild birds in 2006, this subtype was not found by screening live wild birds or by using sentinel birds during the study period. Therefore, persistent circulation of HPAIV (H5N1) in the wild bird populations is unlikely for the area of Lake Constance, the coastal area of Mecklenburg–Western Pomerania, and the region of the Oder Valley in Brandenburg. However, because of the limited sample sizes, a low prevalence cannot be excluded. Although HPAIV (H5N1) was found only rarely in apparently healthy birds, e.g., in a pochard (Aythya ferina) in Switzerland in 2008, regular testing of sentinel birds could increase the probability of detecting sporadic transmission of HPAIV in healthy wild water birds even in the absence of detectable deaths.

Emerging Infectious Diseases
October 6, 2009
http://www.vetscite.org/publish/items/005483/index.html

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Other Articles:
مرض نيوكاسل (07.12.2009)
Avian Disease Fact Sheet (07.12.2009)
IMPORTANT POULTRY DISEASES (04.22.2009)
Handbook on Poultry Diseases (04.22.2009)
السلامة البيولوجية للدواجن (02.25.2009)



 
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دهوك تطلق حملة لمواجهة وباء أنفلونزا الطيور بعد تسجيل إصابات من النوع الواطئ
Ducks as sentinels for avian influenza in wild birds

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